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There are two categories of magic in Final Fantasy: White Magic and Black Magic. White Magic is the specialty of White Mages, but lower-level White Magic spells can also be used by Knights. Black Magic is the specialty of Black Mages, but Black Magic spells up to mid-level can also be used by Ninjas. Red Mages can use most of both Black and White Magic, but are unable to learn the highest-level spells of either school.

Mechanics[]

The original NES version did not use the MP system that would become standard for later games in the series, but instead a variation of the spell slots system from Dungeons & Dragons. Spells are organized into tiers, and a character can learn up to three spells in each tier; learning a new spell requires them to forget one they already know. Each tier of spell has a number of charges, and casting a spell of that tier consumes one charge. Spell charges are replenished by resting at an inn, or by using a Cottage.

The Game Boy Advance Final Fantasy I & II: Dawn of Souls port, and the PlayStation Portable 20th Anniversary port, overhauled the game balance, including changing magic to use an MP system where all spells have an cost and characters have a pool of MP that is consumed. These ports also added Ethers as a means to restore MP. Spells are still divided into tiers with characters only able to learn up to three spells from each tier.

While Final Fantasy distinguishes between White Magic and Black Magic, both are classified under the command "Magic" in the player's menus. The Red Mage groups spells from both schools under this command, and is still limited to only knowing up to three spells in each tier regardless of school.

Formulas[]

Hit determination[]

Base chance to hit starts at 148. If the target resists the spell element, base chance to hit has 148 subtracted from it. If the target is weak to the spell element, base chance to hit is increased by 40. A target can be both weak and resist a given element, which would apply both effects to hit (leaving a final chance to hit of 40).

Hit determination is done by the following formula:

Hit Successful if Random ( 0 ... 200 ) < [ Base Chance + Spell Accuracy - Target Magic Defence ]

If a status or debuff spell hits, it applies its status effect or debuff on the target. If a damage spell hits, it gains an extra damage bonus that differs between versions. Healing and buffing spells never miss.

Some status spells always hit if the target HP is less than 300.

Formulas for NES to Origins[]

Damage spells[]

If the hit was successful:

Damage = Random( 2×Spell Power ... 4×Spell Power )

If the hit was unsuccessful:

Damage = Random ( Spell Power ... 2×Spell Power )

If the target resists the element, damage is halved. If the target is weak to the element, damage is multiplied by 1.5.

Healing spells[]

When used in-battle:

Healing Amount = Random( Spell Power ... 2×Spell Power )

The amount healed is capped to 255 though this value can never be reached without hacking. Curaja does not use this formula and sets the target's HP to full.

When used out of battle, the amount healed is instead a set amount of HP plus a random value, both of which are tied to the spell in question.

Spell Amount Healed
Cure 16 + Random ( 0 ... 15 )
Cura 32 + Random ( 0 ... 31 )
Curaga 64 + Random ( 0 ... 63 )
Heal 16 + Random ( 0 ... 7 )
Healara 32 + Random ( 0 ... 15 )
Healaga 64 + Random ( 0 ... 31 )

Formulas for Dawn of Souls and onward[]

Damage spells[]

The caster's stats factors into how much damage is caused.

Base Damage = Spell Power × Multiplier + [ Intelligence + Luck ] ÷ 2 + Random ( 0 ... Luck ÷ 2 )

Multiplier is determined by Intelligence. Multiplier starts at 1, then increases by 1 each time Intelligence surpasses the following numbers:

20, 30, 40, 50, 66, 82, 98, 114, 130, 146, 162

For example, 34 Intelligence grants a multiplier of 3. Having 99 Intelligence grants a multiplier of 8. Intelligence values exceeding 99 are impossible for player characters to attain, and only two monsters have these high values: Scarmiglione and Atomos.

When the target resists the element of the spell, damage is halved. If the target is weak to the element of the spell, damage is multiplied by 1.5.

If the spell hits (following the determination from above), an additional damage bonus is applied. The hit bonus is not affected by weakness/resistance:

Hit Bonus = Intelligence ÷ 5

If the target is a player character, their Magic Defense determines how much damage is reduced by.

If Magic Defense > 200, reduce damage by half
If 200 >= Magic Defense > 100, reduce damage by a quarter
If Magic Defense <= 100, reduce damage by an eighth

Magic damage is capped to 9999. This can never be reached without hacking.

Healing spells[]

The caster's Intelligence and the target's Luck both affect the amount healed.

Healing Amount = ( Spell Power + Caster Intelligence ) × Spell Accuracy + Random( 0 ... Target Luck ÷ 2 )

Job key[]

Knight Ninja Red Mage Red Wizard
Kn Ni RM RW
White Mage White Wizard Black Mage Black Wizard
WM WW BM BW

Black Magic[]

Name Level MP Power Accuracy Element Target Price Buy Jobs
Fire
(NES: Fire. PS: Fire1: Japan: ファイア)
1 5 10 24 Fire One enemy 100 Cornelia Ni, RM, RW, BM, BW
Inflicts light(10-40 in NES/Origins) Fire elemental damage.
Deals fire damage to one foe.
Thunder
(NES: LIT. PS: Bolt1: Japan: サンダー)
1 5 10 24 Lightning One enemy 100 Cornelia Ni, RM, RW, BM, BW
Inflicts light(10-40 in NES/Origins) Lightning elemental damage.
Deals lightning damage to one foe.
Focus
(NES: LOCK. PS: Focus1. Japan: シェイプ)
1 3 20 64 One enemy 100 Cornelia Ni, RM, RW, BM, BW
Chance to lower one enemy's Evasion by 20.
Lowers one foe's evasion.
Sleep
(NES: SLEP. PS: Sleep1. Japan: スリプル)
1 3 0 24 Sleep(Status in NES) All enemies 100 Cornelia Ni, RM, RW, BM, BW
Chance to inflict Sleep on each enemy target.
Puts all foes to sleep.
Dark
(NES: DARK. PS: Fog. Japan: ダクネス)
2 5 0 24 Darkness(Status in NES) All enemies 400 Pravoka Ni, RM, RW, BM, BW
Chance to inflict Blind on each enemy target.
Blinds all foes with darkness.
Blizzard
(NES: ICE. PS: Ice1. Japan: ブリザド)
2 8 20 24 Ice One enemy 400 Pravoka Ni, RM, RW, BM, BW
Inflicts light(20-80 in NES/Origins) Ice elemental damage.
Deals ice damage to one foe.
Slow
(NES: SLOW. PS: Slow1. Japan: スロウ)
2 5 0 64 Mind(Status in NES) All enemies 400 Pravoka Ni, RM, RW, BM, BW
Chance to decrease each enemy's hit multiplier by 1.
Reduces all foes' number of attacks.
Temper
(NES: TMPR. PS: Steel. Japan: ストライ)
2 8 14 0 One ally 400 Pravoka Ni, RM, RW, BM, BW
Raises ally's attack by +14.
Raises one ally's attack.
Fira
(NES: FIR2. PS: Fire2. Japan: ファイラ)
3 15 30 24 Fire All enemies 1,500 Elfheim Ni, RM, RW, BM, BW
Inflicts moderate(30-120 in NES/Origins) Fire elemental damage to all enemies.
Deals fire damage to all foes.
Hold
(NES: HOLD. PS: Bind. Japan: ホールド)
3 10 0 64 Paralysis(Status in NES) One enemy 1,500 Elfheim Ni, RM, RW, BM, BW
Chance to inflict Paralyze on one enemy.
Paralyzes one foe.
Thundara
(NES: LIT2. PS: Bolt2. Japan: サンダラ)
3 10 30 24 Lightning All enemies 1,500 Elfheim Ni, RM, RW, BM, BW
Inflicts moderate(30-120 in NES/Origins) Lightning elemental damage to all enemies.
Deals lightning damage to all foes.
Focara
(NES: LOK2. PS: Focus2. Japan: シェイラ)
3 10 20 64(40 in NES) All enemies 1,500 Elfheim Ni, RM, RW, BM, BW
Chance to lower each enemy's Evasion by -20.
Lowers evasion of all foes.
Confuse
(NES: CONF. PS: Muddle. Japan: コンフュ)
4 15 0 64 Confusion(Status in NES) All enemies 4,000 Elfheim Ni, RM, RW, BM, BW
Chance to inflict Confuse on each enemy.
Causes foes to turn on each other.
Haste
(NES: FAST. PS: Haste. Japan: ヘイスト)
4 15 0 0 One ally 4,000 Elfheim Ni, RM, RW, BM, BW
Increases hit multiplier of an ally by 1.
Doubles one ally's number of attacks.
Blizzara
(NES: ICE2. PS: Ice2. Japan: ブリザラ)
4 18 40 24 Ice All enemies 4,000 Elfheim Ni, RM, RW, BM, BW
Inflicts moderate(40-160 in NES/Origins) Ice elemental damage to all enemies.
Deals ice damage to all foes.
Sleepra
(NES: SLP2. PS: Sleep2. Japan: スリプラ)
4 15 0 64 One enemy 4,000 Elfheim Ni, RM, RW, BM, BW
Chance to inflict Sleep on one enemy.
Puts one foe to sleep.
Scourge
(NES: BANE. PS: Poison. Japan: クラウダ)
5 28 0 40 Poison(Poison&Stone in NES) All enemies 8,000 Melmond RW, BM, BW
Chance to inflict Instant Death on each enemy.
Instantly kills all foes.
Firaga
(NES: FIR3. PS: Fire3. Japan: ファイガ)
5 30 50 24 Fire All enemies 8,000 Melmond RM, RW, BM, BW
Inflicts heavy(50-200 in NES/Origins) Fire elemental damage to all enemies.
Deals fire damage to all foes.
Slowra
(NES: SLO2. PS: Slow2. Japan: ラスロウ)
5 18 0 64 One enemy 8,000 Melmond RM, RW, BM, BW
Chance to decrease one enemy's hit multiplier by 1.
Reduces one foe's number of attacks.
Teleport
(NES: WARP. PS: Warp1. Japan: テレポ)
5 5 0 255 All allies 8,000 Melmond RW, BW
Return to previous floor.
Transports party to previous floor.
Thundaga
(NES: LIT3. PS: Bolt3. Japan: サンガー)
6 35 60 24 Lightning All enemies 20,000 Crescent Lake RW, BM, BW
Inflicts heavy(60-240 in NES/Origins) Lightning elemental damage to all enemies.
Deals lightning damage to all foes.
Quake
(NES: QAKE. PS: Quake. Japan: クエイク)
6 32 0 40 Earth All enemies 20,000 Crescent Lake BM, BW
Chance to inflict Instant Death on each enemy.
Calls an earthquake to swallow foes.
Death
(NES: RUB. PS: Reaper. Japan: デス)
6 30 0 24 Death One enemy 20,000 Crescent Lake BM, BW
Chance to inflict Instant Death on one enemy.
Instantly kills one foe.
Stun
(NES: STUN. PS: Stun. Japan: スタン)
6 20 0 0 Paralysis(Status in NES) One enemy 20,000 Crescent Lake BM, BW
Inflicts Paralyze on one enemy. Always succeeds if the target has 300 or less HP and is not resistant against the Paralysis(Status in NES) property. Always fails if the target has over 300 HP, or resists the Paralysis(Status in NES) property.
Paralyzes one foe.
Blind
(NES: BLND. PS: Blind. Japan: ブライン)
7 25 0 0 Darkness(Status in NES) One enemy 45,000 Onrac BM, BW
Inflicts Blind on one enemy. Always succeeds if the target has 300 or less HP and is not resistant against the Darkness(Status in NES) property. Always fails if the target has over 300 HP, or resists the Darkness(Status in NES) property.
Blinds one foe with darkness.
Break
(NES: BRAK. PS: Break. Japan: ブレイク)
7 30 0 64 Stone(Poison&Stone in NES) One enemy 45,000 Gaia Black Wizard
Chance to inflict Petrify on one enemy.
Petrifies one foe.
Blizzaga
(NES: ICE3. PS: Ice3. Japan: ブリザガ)
7 40 70 24 Ice All enemies 45,000 Gaia RW, BM, BW
Inflicts heavy(70-280 in NES/Origins) Ice elemental damage to all enemies.
Deals ice damage to all foes.
Saber
(NES: SABR. PS: Saber. Japan: セーバー)
7 25 16 10(0 in NES) Self 45,000 Onrac Black Wizard
Raises own Attack by +16 and Accuracy by +10.
Raises caster's attack and accuracy.
Flare
(NES: NUKE. PS: Flare. Japan: フレアー)
8 50 100 107 All enemies 60,000 Lufenia Black Wizard
Inflicts massive(100-400 in NES/Origins) non-elemental damage to all enemies.
Blasts all foes with light and heat.
Stop
(NES: STOP. PS: Stop. Japan: ストップ)
8 30 0 48 Time All enemies 60,000 Gaia Black Wizard
Chance to inflict Paralyze on each enemy.
Stops time and paralyzes all foes.
Kill
(NES: XXXX. PS: Doom. Japan: キル)
8 40 0 0 Death One enemy 60,000 Gaia Black Wizard
Chance to inflict Instant Death on one enemy. Always succeeds if the target has 300 or less HP and is not resistant against the Death property. Always fails if the target has over 300 HP, or resists the Death property.
Instantly kills one foe.
Warp
(NES: ZAP!. PS: Banish. Japan: デジョン)
8 38 0 32 Time All enemies 60,000 Gaia Black Wizard
Chance to inflict Instant Death on each enemy.
Banishes foes to another dimension.

Gallery[]

Nintendo Entertaiment System (NES)
PlayStation
PlayStation Portable

White Magic[]

Name Level MP Power Accuracy Element Target Price Buy Jobs
Cure
(NES: CURE. PS: Cure1. Japan: ケアル}}
1 3 16 1(0 in NES) One ally 100 Cornelia Kn, RM, RW, WM, WW
Restores a light(16-32 in NES/Origins) amount of HP.
Restores a little HP to one ally.
Protect
(NES: FOG. PS: Shld1. Japan: プロテス}}
1 3 8 0 One ally 100 Cornelia Kn, RM, RW, WM, WW
Raises Defense by +8.
Raises one ally's defense.
Dia
(NES: HARM. PS: Dia1. Japan: ディア}}
1 5 20 24 All enemies 100 Cornelia WM, WW
Inflicts light(20-80 in NES/Origins) damage on Undead enemies.
Deals damage to all undead foes.
Blink
(NES: RUSE. PS: Blink. Japan: ブリンク}}
1 3 80 0 Self 100 Cornelia Kn, RW, WM, WW
Raises own Evasion by +80.
Raises caster's evasion.
NulShock
(NES: ALIT. PS: NulBolt. Japan: バサンダ}}
2 8 0 0 All allies 400 Pravoka Kn, RM, RW, WM, WW
Halves Lightning-elemental damage.
Reduces lightning damage by half.
Invis
(NES: INVS. PS: Invis1. Japan: インビジ}}
2 3 40 0 One ally 400 Pravoka Kn, RM, RW, WM, WW
Raises Evade by +40.
Raises one ally's evasion.
Blindna
(NES: LAMP. PS: Lamp. Japan: ブラナ}}
2 3 0 0 One ally 400 Pravoka Kn, RM, RW, WM, WW
Cures Blind.
Cures darkness.
Silence
(NES: MUTE. PS: Silence. Japan: サイレス}}
2 5 0 64 Status All enemies 400 Pravoka Kn, RM, RW, WM, WW
Inflicts Silence.
Prevents all foes from casting spells.
NulBlaze
(NES: AFIR. PS: NulFire. Japan: バファイ}}
3 8 0 0 All allies 1,500 Elfheim Kn, RM, RW, WM, WW
Add resistance to Fire-elemental damage.
Reduces fire damage by half.
Cura
(NES: CUR2. PS: Cure2. Japan: ケアルア}}
3 10 33 2(0 in NES/Origins) One ally 1,500 Elfheim Kn, RM, RW, WM, WW
Restores a moderate(33-66 in NES/Origins) amount of HP.
Restores HP to one ally.
Heal
(NES: HEAL. PS: Heal1. Japan: ヒール}}
3 10 12 1(0 in NES/Origins) All allies 1,500 Elfheim WM, WW
Restores a minor(12-24 in NES/Origins) amount of HP to all allies.
Restores a little HP to entire party.
Diara
(NES: HRM2. PS: Dia2. Japan: アディア}}
3 12 40 24 All enemies 1,500 Elfheim WM, WW
Inflicts moderate(40-160 in NES/Origins) damage to Undead enemies.
Deals damage to all undead foes.
NulFrost
(NES: AICE. PS: NulIce. Japan: バコルド}}
4 8 0 0 All allies 4,000 Elfheim RM, RW, WM, WW
Add resistance to Ice-elemental damage.
Reduces ice damage by half.
Vox
(NES: AMUT. PS: Vox. Japan: ボキャル}}
4 3 0 0 One ally 4,000 Elfheim RW, WM, WW
Cures Silence.
Cures silence.
Fear
(NES: FEAR. PS: Fear. Japan: フィアー}}
4 10 40 24 Status All enemies 4,000 Elfheim WM, WW
Chance to reduce each enemy's Morale by 40, making them more likely to flee.
Drives all foes away in terror.
Poisona
(NES: PURE. PS: Esuna. Japan: ポイゾナ}}
4 3 0 0 One ally 4,000 Elfheim RM, RW, WM, WW
Cures Poison.
Cures poison.
Curaga
(NES: CUR3. PS: Cure3. Japan: ケアルダ}}
5 20 66 3(0 in NES/Origins) One ally 8,000 Melmond RM, RW, WM, WW
Restores a large(66-132 in NES/Origins) amount of HP to one ally.
Restores a lot of HP to one ally.
Healara
(NES: HEL2. PS: Heal2. Japan: ヒーラ}}
5 25 24 2(0 in NES/Origins) All allies 8,000 Melmond WM, WW
Restores a light(24-48 in NES/Origins) amount of HP to all allies.
Restores HP to entire party.
Diaga
(NES: HRM3. PS: Dia3. Japan: ダディア}}
5 25 60 24 All enemies 8,000 Melmond WM, WW
Inflicts heavy(60-240 in NES/Origins) damage to Undead enemies.
Deals damage to all undead foes.
Life
(NES: LIFE. PS: Life1. Japan: レイズ}}
5 20 0 1(255 in NES) One ally 8,000 Melmond RW, WM, WW
Revives an ally from KO status with 1 HP.
Revives one KO'd ally.
Exit
(NES: EXIT. PS: Warp2. Japan: ダテレポ}}
6 10 0 255 All allies 20,000 Crescent Lake RW, WW
Warp out of dungeon.
Transports party out of dungeons.
Protera
(NES: FOG2. PS: Shld2. Japan: プロテア}}
6 20 12 0 All allies 20,000 Crescent Lake RW, WM, WW
Raises party's Defense by +12.
Raises party's defense.
Invisira
(NES: INV2. PS: Invis2. Japan: インビア}}
6 25 40 0 All allies 20,000 Crescent Lake RW, WM, WW
Raises party's Evasion by +40.
Raises party's evasion.
Stona
(NES: SOFT. PS: Stona. Japan: ストナ}}
6 10 0 0(255 in NES) One ally 20,000 Crescent Lake WM, WW
Cures Petrify.
Cures stone.
NulDeath
(NES: ARUB. PS: NulMgc. Japan: バマジク}}
7 28 0 0 All allies 40,000 Onrac RW, WM, WW
Add resistance to Death, Quake, Paralysis, Darkness, Sleep, Silence, Confuse and Mind(Status in NES) element attacks.
Enhances party's defense against death.
Curaja
(NES: CUR4. PS: Cure4. Japan: ケアルガ}}
7 35 0 0 One ally 45,000 Gaia White Wizard
Fully restores HP.
Fully restores one ally's HP.
Healaga
(NES: HEL3. PS: Heal3. Japan: ラヒーラ}}
7 38 48 3(48 in NES) All allies 40,000 Onrac WM, WW
Restores a moderate(48-96 in NES/Origins) amount of HP to the party.
Restores a lot of HP to entire party.
Diaja
(NES: HRM4. PS: Dia4. Japan: ガディア}}
7 35 80 48 All enemies 40,000 Gaia White Wizard
Inflicts major(80-320 in NES/Origins) damage to Undead enemies.
Deals damage to all undead foes.
Holy
(NES: FADE. PS: Holy. Japan: ホーリー}}
8 50 80 107 All enemies 60,000 Gaia White Wizard
Inflicts major(80-320 in NES/Origins) non-elemental damage.
Damages all foes with holy light.
Full-Life
(NES: LIF2. PS: Life2. Japan: アレイズ}}
8 40 1 255 One ally 60,000 Lufenia White Wizard
Revives and restores all HP.
Revives one ally and fully restores HP.
NulAll
(NES: WALL. PS: NulAll. Japan: バオル}}
8 40 0 0 One ally 60,000 Gaia White Wizard
Grants resistance to every element.
Reduces damage from spells by half.
Dispel
(NES: XFER. PS: Dispel. Japan: デスペル}}
8 35 0 107 One enemy 60,000 Gaia White Wizard
Remove elemental resistances.
Negates one foe's magical defenses.

Gallery[]

Nintendo Entertaiment System (NES)
PlayStation
PlayStation Portable


Other appearances[]

Final Fantasy Airborne Brigade[]

Ability Cards
Legend Cards

Final Fantasy Brave Exvius[]

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Behind the scenes[]

Paralyna was originally slated for inclusion in the original Final Fantasy as a level 2 White Magic spell that would have cured both the Sleep and Paralysis ailments. Its name was also spelled differently in Japanese, as パララナ rather than the final パラナ.[1]

Etymology[]

Magic or sorcery is an attempt to understand, experience and influence the world using rituals, symbols, actions, gestures and language that are believed to exploit supernatural forces.

  1. Oya, K. (Ed.) (2012) Final Fantasy Ultimania Archive Vol. 1, p. 33
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